P.476 - §6 The ultimatons, unknown on Urantia, slow down through many phases of physical activity before they attain the revolutionary-energy prerequisites to electronic organization. Ultimatons have three varieties of motion: mutual resistance to cosmic force, individual revolutions of antigravity potential, and the intraelectronic positions of the one hundred mutually interassociated ultimatons.
Assumptions and Properties
In 1998, Japanese scientists discovered that neutrinos (probably some aggregates of ultimatons) are not weightless; the weight of a neutrono is a tiny fraction of that of an electron.
This note represents an attempt to understand the structure of an electron. We are vaguely aware that some investigations were done about quarks; two ups and one down form a proton and two downs and one down a neutron, etc. and there are other particles. But they are subatomic particles. It appears that physicists are still busy breaking up these particles, but not electrons. So this page includes idle speculations about the structure of an electron. The fundamental elements are called ultimatons here. We may require a gigantic microscope(?) or supercollider yet to be invented.
How are ultimatons positioned in a typical electron? Here are some assumptions needed to build an electron from 100 ultimatons as suggested in the Urantia Book:
Derived Properties1. Is an electron hollow inside?
No. Because of the huddling proclivity, even if all ultimatons are temporarily positioned on the surface only, they will jump to the core and fill it. This implies that these ultimatons have more than one layer inside an electron.
Specifically, suppose that 100 ultimatons are sprinkled on the surface of a hypothetical hollow globe. Then the distance between two adjacent ultimatons is much smaller than two ultimatons positioned at diametrically opposite side of the globe. Huddling proclivity insures that in this case they would jump to the core.
The huddling proclivity implies that there are at least two layers of ultimatons within an electron. There might be more than two layers.
The huddling proclivity also implies that an electron is a compact globe.
2. How many ultimatons are located in the upper hemisphere?
Consider the upper hemisphere of an electron. Here, the desigination of upper and lower hemisphere of an electron is arbitrary. By the symmetry assumption, there are exactly 50 ultimatons in the upper and lower hemispheres. One can argue that some ultimatons stay on the border lines between the upper and lower hemispheres. However, in this case, all you have to do is rotate the electron a few degrees around the nucleus so that these borderline ultimatons belong to either the upper hemisphere or lower hemisphere. This finding implies that no ultimaton occupies the dead center of an electron.
If an ultimaton occupied the center of an electron, excluding this center, there would be only 49 ultimatons in the upper hemisphere, and an equal number of ultimatons in the lower hemisphere, resulting in a total of 99 ultimatons. If the electron has 50 on one hemisphere and 49 in the other hemisphere, excluding the center, then it is not symmetric. Thus, the symmetry assumption precludes the possibility that there is a central ultimaton within an electron.
3. Can there be two ultimatons in the first layer (or center)?
No. Surrounding them with the remaining 98 ultimatons would not make the group a true symmetric globe. The line connecting the center of the inner two ultimatons determines an axis, and other surrounding ultimatons (not revolving) could make the set symmetric around this imaginary axis, but not in other directions.
4. Can there be three ultimatons in the first layer?
No. The three ultimatons in equal distance will define an equilateral triangle. The remaining 97 ultimatons might define a symmetric group, and the plane defined by the triangle might provide the axis of symmetry, but the electron thus formed may not necessarily be symmetric in every direction.
Moreover, since 97 is an odd number, one of them must also be on the same plane as the equilateral triangle to make the group symmetric around this plane. Such a flat inner structure is not likely to make the globe a round sphere on its surface. Its nonsymmetric feature will appear on the outermost layer.
To offset this flat inner strcutre, it would require two other flat planes, orthogonal, or perpendicular to the first plane. Hence, it would require at least 16 ultimatons in the inner layer.
5. Can there be four ultimatons in the first layer?
Perhaps. That is a possibility, because four ultimatons equally spaced (not on a plane) define a tetrahedron, as shown in Picture 1. The tip of the red stick indicates the imaginary center of the tetrahedron. In this case, one can derive four spokes emanating from the center to the four vertices. (Five is also a possibility. In this case, connecting the ultimatons with straight lines will yield a hexahedron.)
If the innermost layer is a tetrahedron, how many ultimatons can be attached in the second layer? It is not clear. Consider the following representation of a spoke:
(0) -- 1 -- 3 -- 5 -- 7 -- 9,
where the parenthsis ( ) refers to the center, the first element denotes the number of the ultimatons in the first layer, the second denotes that of the second layer, and so on. This spoke indicates that it has none in the center, one in the first layer, and three in the second layer, etc.
In this case, each spoke contains 25 ultimatons, and since there are four spokes from the center, there would be exactly 100 ultimatons. Another problem is that there are five layers, perhaps too many.
In a hexahedron, as shown in Picture 2, all lines connecting the ultimatons have the same distance.
From the empty center, one can draw five lines to the five innermost ultimatons. Each of these lines from the empty center can be further extended to add more ultimatons. This hexahedrons with five ultimatons can be represented by the following:
(0) -- 1 -- 3 -- 6 -- 10.
Picture 3 shows this spoke with only three layers, the last layer being 10 (not shown). The tip of the red stick indicates the empty nucleus of the electron.
This hexahedron is a stable symmetric collection of ultimatons. In this case, on each spoke, there are a total of 20 ultimatons. Since there are five spokes, there would be exactly 100 ultimatons. One conceptual problem with this model is that there are still four layers. A physical model has yet to be built to demonstrate this possibility.
What Andrew Actually Built
I asked Andrew (19, right) to construct a model, suggesting that the electron may have two or three layers. He constructed a model in about 10 minutes. Instead of counting all the ultimatons, which can be very confusing, he suggested the counting method as outlined before. The model he actually built has 20 spokes with the following structure:
(0) -- 1 -- 1 -- 3.
One spoke, or a fundamental building block, is shown in Picture 4.
You can conceive some other spokes, and if you actually build one, let Kathy know.
Since there are 20 spokes, and each spoke contains five ultimatons, there are exactly 100 ultimatons. So this is a possibility and it looks complicated at first glance.
To understand its structure, first take a look at the inner layer, (0) -- 1, which is a pentagonal (regular) dodecahedron, i.e., it has twelve sides and each side is a pentagon. However, to facilitate the construction of this dodecahedron and to facilitate the counting method, the hypothetical center is replaced by a ball in the next picture.
There are twelve pentagons, one on the top, on at the bottom, and five on the upper side, and five on the lower side. Each ultimaton is connected to three adjacent pentagons. There are five ultimatons on the top, five at the bottom, and ten on the side, this dodecahedron contains exactly 20 ultimatons.
Andrew suggested an easier way count to ultimatons. Count the spokes and then figure out how many ultimatons are attached to each spoke, like a cluster of grapes. In the upper hemisphere, there are five steep spokes connecting to the five ultimatons on the top pentagon, and five low angle spokes connecting them to the five legs of this pentagon. Similarly, the lower hemisphere contains 10 spokes. The total number of spokes is 20, and each spoke contains only one ultimaton on the first layer.
The next layer is a straightforward extension of the first layer, because the element of the second layer in each spoke is 1. Picture 5 shows only one spoke completely, which sticks out from the dodecahedron. This spoke contains only one ultimaton in the second layer. Thus, the yellow spoke is a straight line, or a ray, emanating from the center, until the second layer.
The last layer in each spoke contains three ultimatons. They are spread out because there is more room on the outer layer. Since there are 20 spokes, there are exactly sixty ultimatons on the surface of a typical electron.
How are these ultimatons aligned harmoniously with one another within an electron if we were to look at it with an imaginary microscope? Since God created, it must be orderly. Picture 7 shows a model of a complete electron with 100 ultimatons with 20 spokes. At first glance, this construct looks very complicated, because it shows all the innards of the electron: a small pentagonal dodecahedron in the first layer, a larger pentagonal dodecahedron with the same spoke, and something new. To see its simplicity, take a look at a soccer ball in Picture 8.
In a soccer ball, each pentagon is surrounded by five hexagons, and conversely, five contiguous hexagons surround a pentagon. A soccer ball has one pentagon (blue) on the top and one pentagon on the bottom (not shown). It also has five pentagons (only three showing in the front, two are hidden) on the upper half. Similarly, it has five pentagons on the lower half (only two showing in the front, three hidden). So there are 12 pentagons again.
There are five hexagons surrounding the top pentagon, each of which has another hexagon attached as a leg. There are ten hexagons on the upper half, and hence 20 hexagons in a soccer ball. A soccer ball has 32 sides.
Now let us go back to Picture 7. There is a pentagon on the top. Each pentagon is surrounded by five hexagons. But wait. All the hexagons are zigzagged--not all hexagons are connected by sticks due to insufficient number of sticks--and they do not lie on a flat surface. Why? Because the pentagon has five legs going down. But other than this, an electron looks just like a soccer ball on the surface. Inside, there are two pentagonal dodecahedrons, and obviously the inner is smaller.
Douglas also suggested an octahedron structure (right), but it resulted in only 85 balls, not quite an electron. But you can see the star of David from it.
My only question is why don't the ultimatons on the first layer jump to the center. I have not been able to answer this. Perhaps it is answered already by the first few questions about symmetry. If one jumps to the center, it might break symmetry and harmony.
If they were to jump into the center, this soccer ball structure is not tenable and it would break, which is probably what happens when space ray hits the core of an electron. We need to look for a structure with possibly four layers. A tetrahedron might be a possibility as the first layer. In this case, there should be four or more layers, rather than three.
Perhaps God has kicked a soccer ball to the evolutionary universes. Now it is your turn to do more research on this subject.
The assembly of energy into the minute spheres of the ultimatons occasions vibrations in the content of space which are discernible and measurable. (p. 474, §8)
But some of this electronic unpredictability is due to differential ultimatonic axial revolutionary velocities and to the unexplained "huddling" proclivity of ultimatons. (p. 478, §4)
The preceding two pages discuss symmetry in an intuitive fashion without actually defining it. Perhaps it is the best way. Symmetry simply means that one can draw many planes through the center of the globe. Then one hemisphere is a mirror image of the other. If you rotate the plane around the core, it will appear symmetric; the right hemisphere will be a mirror image of the left. In the case of a smooth, true globe, one can insert infinitely many planes through the center, and one hemisphere thus derived will be the mirror image of the other hemisphere, no matter what plane is chosen. A true globe would be smooth everywhere on the surface.
If there are 100 elements in a globe, its surface is not truly smooth and it cannot be a true globe; it is a "globe" in the sense of approximation. A pentagonal dodecahedron is an approximate globe. One can draw many planes through the center so that the dodecahedron is symmetric. For instance, in Picture 6, a vertical plane through the center can divide the dodecahedron equally. However, you can rotate this plane a little bit, say 5 degrees, and each half of the dodecahedron will not be a mirror image around this plane. Neither the pentagonal dodecahedron nor the soccer ball is truly symmetric; they are not true globes. However, a plane can be derived from each spoke so as to make the dodecahedrons and soccer balls symmetric.
This suggests that we need to confine our discussion to the realm of finite symmetry, in contrast to infinite symmetry, which is observed in a perfect globe. Three planes containing these spokes can be extended from the core, and if the structure is symmetric around these planes, we can say that it shows finite symmetry. As the number of planes of symmetry increases, the structure increasingly resembles the perfect globe.
For instance, in Picture 1, the red stick emanating from the center defines an axis, and one can insert a plane that separates the tetrahedron into two symmetric pieces. But if this plane were rotated a little around the imaginary center (the tip of the red stick), the tetrahedron will not be symmetric around the new plane.
Why is finte symmetry important?
If finite symmetry is tolerated, it is possible to put one ultimaton in the center. Three ultimatons equally spaced defines a flat plane. If we do not want the electron to be a flat disk, we need two other triangles, so that the planes defined by the three triangles are perpendicular to one another. These three triangles use up nine ultimatons, and nine spokes. Thus, a possible structure is:
(1) -- 1 -- 10
where as before, the center element ( ) refers to the core, and hence (1) means that the center has one ultimaton, and the first element (also 1) refers to the number of ultimatons on the first layer, and so on. Since nine spokes emanate from the center of this structure, the total number of ultimatons in the first and second layers is 9 x 11 = 99, and including the center, we have exactly 100 ultimatons.
A more likely structure with three layers is:
(1) -- 1 -- 3 -- 7
A typical spoke would be similar to Picture 3, if you can force an extra ultimaton on the last layer somewhere by zigzagging the sticks. This structure defines a flat surface on the last layer, but it is supposed to be spherical, and if the sticks are flexible, you might be able to squeeze an extra ultimaton there easily. Unfortunately, Douglas has not been able to construct a model due to inflexibility of our tools.
Since August 11, 1998.